Science-based food supplements
Science-based food supplements

Why Aging Humans Need More Carnitine?

Why Aging Humans Need More Carnitine?

An inevitable consequence of aging is a rapid decline in our cellular energy levels. The outward effects often manifest as a sense of overall fatigue, depression, and sexual dysfunction. The internal effect of a cellular energy deficit is a greater vulnerability to a host of degenerative diseases.

The prime reason cells lose their energy-producing ability is that the powerhouses of the cells­—the mitochondria—become dysfunctional. Research has shown that the amino acid carnitine is critical to maintaining optimal mitochondrial function and supporting high energy production.

Carnitine is responsible for fueling the fires of energy production at the cellular level. Without this valuable nutrient, the mitochondria are unable to burn dietary fats to create the energy we need to live.

Scientists have discovered several different forms of carnitine that, in addition to bolstering energy production, produce health benefits that include protecting against neurodegenerative diseases, alleviating depression, stimulating nerve growth, and improving heart function.

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Vitamin C and Dihydroquercetin

Vitamin C and Dihydroquercetin

Every day, our bodies are under continual assault by damaging agents known as free radicals. Generally, both internal and dietary antioxidants do an excellent job of keeping free radicals in check. However, once this balance is disrupted, lethal diseases such as cancer, heart disease, lung disease, diabetes, Parkinson’s disease, arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke can be initiated.1-3

A wealth of scientific evidence has repeatedly demonstrated that specialized compounds in fresh fruits and vegetables exert critical protection against free-radical assault.4 Of these, vitamin C and plant substances known as flavonoids may be among nature’s most potent natural antioxidants.1-6

Exciting new studies suggest that a flavonoid called dihydroquercetin, in combination with vitamin C, provides even more powerful, synergistic protection against oxidative stress than either substance alone.

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Feed Your Brain!

Feed Your Brain!

Millions of people around the world are adhering to low-fat, low-cholesterol diets in an effort to reduce the impact of disease-promoting calories. What they don’t realize is they’re also starving their brains of specific nutrients needed for memory and healthy cognitive function.

“Heart-healthy” diets that restrict eggs, meats, cheese, and other sources of cholesterol and saturated fats may not be so healthy for the brain. Such diets can lead to shortages of two essential nutrients, choline (as alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine) and serine (as phosphatidylserine), required by the brain to manufacture memory-related neurotransmitters and functional membrane lipids.

The brain’s demand for choline and serine becomes even more critical with aging. Recent trends in the incidence of cognitive dysfunction suggest that optimizing our intake of these compounds could help reverse the alarming rise in dementia among older Americans. An estimated 10-20% of people over 65 years of age already suffer from mild cognitive impairment1 and as many as 5.2 million people in the US are currently living with Alzheimer’s disease.2 Researchers predict that as many as 10 million baby boomers could develop Alzheimer’s during their lifetime.2

New research suggests that the biochemical processes that lead to cognitive decline represent a modifiable risk factor for the development of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease, and that two essential brain nutrients, phosphatidylserine and alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (GPC), may enable aging humans to forestall or even reverse declines in memory and cognitive performance.

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Lipoic Acid Reverses Mitochondrial Decay

Lipoic Acid Reverses Mitochondrial Decay

It is estimated that 85% of the oxygen contained in every breath you take is consumed by the mitochondria within each cell of your body.1

The decay of these energy-producing powerhouses in turn lies at the core of most age-related pathologies.

In experimental models examining the mitochondrial theory of aging, it has been shown that cells microinjected with mitochondria isolated from old animals degenerate far more rapidly than those microinjected with mitochondria from young animals.2

The good news is that when supplied with a nutrient regimen that includes lipoic acid, a profound regeneration is observed in similar animal models,3 including improved metabolic function and a marked decline in oxidative stress.

In this article, the recent data on lipoic acid’s multimodal power to combat a host of age-related diseases is detailed. You will learn how it may help prevent cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. You will also learn of drug company efforts to produce high-cost, synthetic forms of lipoic acid to capitalize on its unique health-promoting properties at your expense.

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How Resveratrol Combats Leading Causes of Death

How Resveratrol Combats Leading Causes of Death

In 1997, the first scientific paper on resveratrol was published showing that this polyphenol could prevent cancer in experimental models.1

Since then, researchers have documented resveratrol’s ability to favorably modulate multiple processes associated with degenerative disease, from atherosclerosis to obesity.

What had been lacking was a systematic, comprehensive overview of the available data to determine the underlying mechanisms by which resveratrol exerts its anti-aging effect.

Until now!

In 2011, the findings of the 2010 Resveratrol Conference2 held in Denmark were published. Its primary objective was to examine the totality of the evidence for resveratrol’s disease-preventing role in aging humans. Nearly 3,700 published studies were analyzed.

In this article, you will discover the 12 mechanisms of action these experts identified by which resveratrol acts to combat the killer diseases of aging and delay the aging process itself.

You will also learn of the latest data on resveratrol’s multimodal power to protect cells, tissues, and organ systems against five leading causes of death among Americans, including heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.

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Discovering Coffee’s Unique Health Benefits

Discovering Coffee's Unique Health Benefits

Every morning, many of us sip our coffee with no real thought given to the beans behind the brew. But coffee beans are extra-ordinarily complex fruits containing over 1,0001,2 compounds – only a handful of which have ever been individually investigated by scientists. Not only is coffee packed with antioxidants,3 but it is the greatest source of antioxidants in the American diet.3,4

The average American coffee drinker consumes about 3.1 cups of coffee a day,5 but extensive research has found that higher volumes – as much as 4 to 12 cups daily – can help prevent most major killers, including cardiovascular disease,6-8 cancer,9-11 diabetes,12-14 liver disease,15-17 and Alzheimer’s disease.18-20

For instance, in case-controlled human studies, compared to coffee abstainers, those who drank the most coffee cut their risks of breast cancer by 57% and diabetes by 67%.10,21

In this article, you will learn about recent research into the benefits of coffee consumption, what’s missing from most commercial coffee beans, and what people should do who are overly sensitive to coffee beverages.

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Green Tea

Green Tea: Natural Support for Healthy Weight Control

Green Tea: Natural Support for Healthy Weight Control

Scientific research on the health benefits of green tea is expanding exponentially, with more than 1,500 articles published in prestigious journals over the last five years alone.

While green tea’s medicinal properties have been described for more than 1,000 years, one of its most timely benefits may be supporting weight management by increasing metabolism and promoting fat burning. With nearly two thirds of the American population now overweight or obese—and thus at heightened risk for metabolic syndrome, heart disease, cancer, and other life-threatening ailments—effective weight-control strategies are fast becoming a matter of life and death.

In addition to promoting healthy body weight and composition, green tea may help ward off numerous health conditions that afflict aging adults, from cataracts to autoimmune disorders. Green tea’s health-promoting properties have even been recognized by the FDA, which recently approved the first prescription drug derived from green tea.

In this article, we examine compelling research supporting green tea’s role in helping to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight, along with myriad studies testifying to its broad-spectrum effects in promoting optimal health and well-being.

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The Lancet Reports Extremely Positive Data on Green Tea

The Lancet Reports Extremely Positive Data on Green Tea

As medical researchers continue to uncover the health benefits of green tea, one might think that these discoveries are of recent origin. In fact, the Western world’s growing interest in green tea’s disease-preventive effects tends to overshadow what Asian cultures have known for thousands of years: that green tea is one of nature’s most potent agents in protecting the body against a host of illnesses, thus offering real hope to those seeking to live longer, disease-free lives.

Asian populations that regularly consume green tea have lower overall rates of cancer.1,2 In 1994, researchers from the Shanghai Cancer Institute compared green tea drinkers to non-drinkers in a large population study in China. They found that in non-smokers, drinking green tea was associated with fewer cancers of the esophagus.3

Since that time, scientists have been trying to ascertain exactly why green tea drinkers are less likely to develop cancer and how green tea works in the human body. What is known is that research conducted in the last few years suggests that green tea may be effective in helping to prevent a wide variety of cancers in humans, including cancers of the bladder, colon, esophagus, pancreas, rectum, and stomach.4

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Carnosine: Exceeding Scientific Expectations

Carnosine: Exceeding Scientific Expectations

Almost ten years ago, Life Extension® published compelling data showing that supplementation with higher-dose carnosine induced a wide range of anti-aging effects, including marked reductions in lethal glycation reactions.

We reported on experimental findings in the 1990s demonstrating life span extending effects when carnosine was added to the diet.

Since then an enormous number of published scientific studies have corroborated the multiple beneficial effects of carnosine including protecting brain cells from toxic metal ion reactions that lead to dementia.

Carnosine is an amino acid compound found primarily in red meat. A typical red meat meal may provide 250 mg of carnosine, but this is quickly degraded in the body by the carnosinase enzyme. What this means is that even if a person relied on red meat for their carnosine, it would not last long enough in the body to provide sustained protective effects. Supplementation with 1,000 mg a day of carnosine overwhelms the carnosinase enzyme, thus enabling one to maintain consistent blood levels of this critical nutrient.

In this article, we report on a new longevity study using carnosine.1 Highly concentrated in brain and muscle tissue (including the heart), it turns out that carnosine strikes at multiple molecular targets to delay aging in laboratory animals and human tissues!2-4

This article uncovers new data about carnosine’s ability to provide targeted support to vital tissues in the heart, brain, and eye.

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Depression. New Human Study Confirms Potent Antidepressant Effects of SAMe

New Human Study Confirms Potent Antidepressant Effects of SAMe

Life Extension® introduced SAMe (S-adenosylmethinone) in 1997. Back then it was enormously popular in Europe, but unknown in the United States.

The National Institute of Mental Health decided to fund a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that would evaluate SAMe as an additive therapy in those suffering major depression who were resistant to FDA-approved drugs.

Researchers at Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital gave patients 800 mg of SAMe twice daily along with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibiting drug (SSRI).

Relative to placebo, patients who received the SAMe showed a 105% higher response rate and a 121% higher remission rate.1 Said differently, add-on therapy with SAMe in patients with drug-resistant depression produced double the response rate AND remission rate compared with placebo within a 6-week period.

This study was published in the August 2010 issue of the American Journal of Psychiatry.1 It was a follow-up to a 2004 pilot study that showed greater benefits when antidepressant drugs were combined with SAMe than when the same drugs were taken alone.2

For the past 13 years, SAMe has been on Life Extension’s TOP TEN list of the most important steps to take to ensure optimal longevity. SAMe has been recommended to aging individuals not to just feel better, but also to protect the brain, liver, joints, and other tissues of the body like no other substance.

This article reviews and updates the many studies documenting the anti-aging properties of SAMe.

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Newly Discovered Anti-Aging Effects of Ginkgo Biloba

Newly Discovered Anti-Aging Effects of Ginkgo Biloba

A review of the current scientific literature might suggest that ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) is the ultimate natural product—a veritable fountain of youth. Not only can it improve memory and help relieve the symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, but recent evidence also suggests that it can improve mental health in healthy older adults and has uses in treating conditions as various as diabetic retinopathy, intermittent claudication, erectile dysfunction, ulcers, and arthritis. Treating or preventing each of these conditions is important for successful aging. A plant with a long life span itself, ginkgo may help people to live long and healthy lives.

Ginkgo seeds have been used medicinally for thousands of years and the leaf itself has been used medicinally for more than 500 years.1 The seeds of the ginkgo tree traditionally have been used to treat asthma and cough, fight cancer, promote digestion, and treat irritable bladder. While ginkgo leaves were originally applied as a topical skin treatment, the medicinal properties of the leaf extract when taken orally are what has made ginkgo one of the best-selling herbal dietary supplements.1

Although ginkgo may grow in your backyard, its leaf extracts must be pharmacologically standardized to deliver the most benefits.2 Because tea made from the leaves does not contain enough of the active ingredients, ginkgo is one botanical that cannot be prepared as a home remedy. Ginkgo preparations are standardized to the active constituents, ginkgo flavone glycosides and terpene lactones.

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Preserving and Restoring Brain Function part 2

Ashwagandha and the Brain

Ashwagandha and the Brain

Ashwagandha is a medicinal plant used in India to treat a wide range of age-related disorders.53-63 Its most remarkable effect may involve its ability to preserve the health of the aging brain.

Ashwagandha offers myriad neuroprotective benefits. For example, one study showed that when given to mice, ashwagandha extract promotes memory retention, even when amnesia has been induced experimentally.60 Another study found that ashwagandha extract is capable of protecting the brains of laboratory rats against experimentally induced stroke.61 Ashwagandha constituents have also been shown to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), an enzyme responsible for breaking down acetylcholine, the neurotransmitter that is in dangerously short supply in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease sufferers.62 This AChE-blocking action is similar to that of prescription drugs such as Aricept® that are currently used to treat Alzheimer’s symptoms.

Exciting new research indicates that ashwagandha extract is capable of halting and even repairing damage to brain cells in an experimentally induced model of Alzheimer’s disease.63 Scientists in Japan induced Alzheimer’s-type brain cell atrophy and loss of synaptic function in mice by exposing them to the toxic protein Abeta, which has been implicated in the genesis of Alzheimer’s disease in humans. “Subsequent treatment with [a constituent of ashwagandha] induced significant regeneration of both axons and dendrites, in addition to the reconstruction of pre- and postsynapses in the neurons,” according to the scientists.63

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Preserving and Restoring Brain Function part 1

Preserving and Restoring Brain Function

Protecting brain health is vital if the pursuit of a longer life is to have any meaning. According to current wisdom, some degree of cognitive impairment is all but inevitable as we age.1-6 That is, unless steps are taken to prevent it.7-12

Scientists in Texas recently noted, “As life expectancy increases worldwide, pandemics of cognitive impairment and dementia are emerging as major public health problems.”2 Another research team tried to inject humor into this sobering topic:

“Cognitive aspects of aging represent a grave challenge for our societal circumstances as members of the baby-boom generation spiral toward a collective ‘senior moment.’”5

The encouraging news is that scientists have discovered methods to preserve and even restore neurological structure and function. These powerful weapons give aging adults unprecedented control over their cognitive health.

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PQQ. Generate Fresh Mitochondria with PQQ

Scientists Discover the “Other CoQ10”

Generate Fresh Mitochondria with PQQ

In 1983, Life Extension® introduced a relatively little-known compound called coenzyme Q10. Our review of the literature back then had unearthed data confirming its power to boost the health and energy output of the mitochondria.

Today, scientists recognize mitochondrial dysfunction as a key biomarker of aging.1-6 To take one instance, researchers have recorded evidence of 50% more mitochondrial damage in the brain cells of humans over 70 compared to middle-aged individuals.7 Mitochondrial dysfunction and death are now definitively linked to the development of virtually all killer diseases of aging, from Alzheimer’s and type 2 diabetes to heart failure.8-11

The good news is that mitochondrial dysfunction can be reversed.12 The scientific literature is now filled with studies documenting the therapeutic power of CoQ10 to thwart degenerative disease by boosting mitochondrial health and bioenergetic (energy-producing) capacity.13-16

The latest advance in the area of mitochondrial bioenergetics is the coenzyme pyrroloquinoline quinone or PQQ.

PQQ’s critical role across a range of biological functions has only gradually emerged. Like CoQ10, it is a micronutrient whose antioxidant capacity provides extraordinary defense against mitochondrial decay.

But the most exciting revelation on PQQ emerged early in 2010, when researchers found it not only protected mitochondria from oxidative damage—it stimulated growth of fresh mitochondria!17

In this article, you will learn of this novel coenzyme’s ability to combat mitochondrial dysfunction. You will find out how it protects the brain, heart, and muscles against degenerative disease. You will also discover its potential to reverse cellular aging by activating genes that induce mitochondrial biogenesis—the spontaneous formation of new mitochondria in aging cells!

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Pterostilbene – The “Other” Resveratrol. A Novel Method to Simulate the Genetic Effects of Caloric Restriction

Pterostilbene - The “Other” Resveratrol. A Novel Method to Simulate the Genetic Effects of Caloric Restriction

Scientists have discovered a plant extract related to resveratrol that mimics many of the beneficial effects of caloric restriction. This natural compound favorably regulates genes involved in the development of cancer, atherosclerosis, diabetes, and the system-wide inflammation that underlies a variety of age-related disorders.

Pterostilbene (terro-STILL-bean), found in blueberries, grapes, and in the bark of the Indian Kino Tree, has been used for centuries in Ayurvedic medicine. Pterostilbene and resveratrol are both stilbene compounds, closely related structurally, which gives them similar but not identical functions. Researchers have found that these two compounds work in a synergistic fashion to activate one’s “longevity genes.”

Pterostilbene produces its beneficial effects on gene expression in ways that enhance those produced by resveratrol. That is why pterostilbene functions particularly well when combined with resveratrol.

This article first examines the unique ways in which pterostilbene simulates conditions produced by caloric restriction. Then it will describe how these effects translate into a broader spectrum of benefits than otherwise provided by resveratrol alone.

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